Towards a nuclear-weapons free Europe and a nuclear-weapon free world: the case of France
Since the 1995 Review Conference of the NPT, France agreed upon the statement of "nuclear disarmament in good faith" and simultaneously prepared a total renewal and modernization of its nuclear weapon arsenal.Dominique Lalanne, of Abolition 2000-Europe, and Abolition of Nuclear Weapons/Stop Essais
"Good Faith, International Law, and the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons: The Once and Future Contributions of the International Court of Justice"
Conference report: "Good Faith, International Law, and the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons: The Once and Future Contributions of the International Court of Justice"
1 May, Warwick Hotel,
Good Faith: A Fundamental Principle of International Law
John Burroughs, Lawyers' Committee on Nuclear Policy
"Good faith is a fundamental principle of
international law, without which all international law would collapse,"
declared Judge Mohammed Bedjaoui during the first week of the PrepCom. Bedjaoui
was President of the International Court of Justice when it gave its 1996
advisory opinion on nuclear weapons, and more recently, Algerian Foreign
Minister. He delivered the keynote address to a conference, "Good Faith, International
Law, and the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons: The Once and Future Contributions
of the International Court of Justice," held on 1 May at the Warwick Hotel in
A major portion of Judge Bedjaoui's
address was devoted to the legal significance of the addition of the phrase
?good faith? to NPT Article VI, which requires each state party to ?pursue in
good faith negotiations on effective measures ? relating to nuclear
disarmament?. The phrase also figures in the Court?s unanimous formulation of
the obligation, based on NPT Article VI, ?to pursue in good faith and bring to
a conclusion negotiations on nuclear disarmament in all its aspects.? He
explained that general legal principles governing good faith negotiation as
applied in the NPT context include:
? sustained upkeep of the
negotiation; awareness of the interests of the other party; and a persevering
quest for an acceptable compromise, with a willingness to contemplate modification
of one?s own position
? refraining from acts incompatible
with the object and purpose of the NPT; proscription of every initiative the
effect of which would be to render impossible the conclusion of the
contemplated disarmament treaty
? respect for the integrity of the
NPT; no selectivity regarding which provisions to implement
? a general obligation of
information and communication
? prohibition of abuse of process
such as fraud or deceit
? prohibition of unjustified
termination of negotiations
In related observations regarding
?building confidence,? Judge Bedjaoui stated: ?Today more than ever, it is
important to attribute a more decisive role to the UN in the coherent, democratic
conduct of an integrated process of nuclear disarmament, with a realistic and
Judge Bedjaoui also offered some
fascinating comments on the 1996 opinion?s treatment of the question of
legality of threat or use of nuclear weapons. He noted the ?radical
incompatibility existing in principle between the use of nuclear weapons and
respect for international humanitarian law? reflected in the opinion. And he
attributed the Court?s failure to advise that threat or use is illegal in all
circumstances to the inability of some judges to ignore the ?pseudo-scientific chiaroscuro?
of a ?clean? nuclear bomb raised by some states and referred to in paragraph 95
of the opinion.
One of the conference panels
considered the strategy of returning to the International Court of Justice to
seek its advice on the legal consequences of the disarmament obligation. Phon
van den Biesen, an Amsterdam-based lawyer, advocate before the Court, and vice
president of the International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms
(IALANA), observed that the nuclear weapon states ?pretend there are no
specific obligations? flowing from the Court?s 1996 opinion. He said it is time
for civil society to rally as it did in supporting the request for the first
opinion, and for the UN General Assembly to ?break the stalemate and ask the
Court to remind the world that international law is not just text on paper,
but agreed norms and obligations.?
Representatives of organizations sponsoring the conference explained the
emerging ?good faith? campaign. Among them was John Loretz, program director of
the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW). He said
that the initiative to return to the Court and the International Campaign for the
Abolition of Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) complement each other.
Other speakers addressing the
conference were international lawyers and law professors and NGO analysts.
Peter Weiss, vice president of IALANA and of the F?d?ration Internationale des
Droits de l?Homme, called the
Professor Karima Bennoune of
Ambassador Jaap Ramaker, drawing on
his experience as chair of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) negotiations
in 1996 when the treaty was adopted, identified political and legal conditions that support successful
negotiations. Among them are: prior commitments to negotiation of a treaty
(both the Partial Test Ban Treaty and the NPT identify the CTBT as an
objective); commitments regarding completion of negotiation (the NPT 1995
Principles and Objectives specified 1996); establishment of a proper
negotiating mechanism; and clear circumscription of the scope of the negotiations.
Speaking for the New York-based
Lawyers? Committee on Nuclear Policy, I outlined the lack of compliance with
the disarmament obligation in the last decade. There have been no negotiations,
bilateral, plurilateral, or multilateral, on the reduction and elimination of
nuclear arsenals. The only arguable exception, the two-page 2002 U.S.-Russian
agreement, was more of a confidence-building measure, lacking provisions on
verification or irreversibility.
Jacqueline Cabasso, executive
director of the California-based Western States Legal Foundation, characterized
the policy of the nuclear weapon states, in particular the USA, UK, and France,
as ?fewer but newer,? and increasingly ?capacity- based.? These states, she
said, cling to the notion of ?deterrence? while the ?threat? they seek to deter
is an unknown and uncertain future. They are modernizing and qualitatively
improving their ?enduring? nuclear arsenals, both warheads and delivery
The day-long conference attracted
90 NGOs, students, and diplomats. It was sponsored by the World Court Project
to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, a civil society coalition formed by IALANA, IPPNW,
International Peace Bureau,
Burroughs is executive director of the Lawyers? Committee on Nuclear Policy and
author of The Legality of Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons: A Guide to the Historic
Opinion of the International Court of Justice (1997).
Toward a Nuclear-Free World, By GEORGE P. SHULTZ, WILLIAM J. PERRY, HENRY A. KISSINGER and SAM NUNN
By GEORGE P. SHULTZ, WILLIAM J. PERRY, HENRY A.
KISSINGER and SAM NUNN
January 15, 2008
The accelerating spread of nuclear weapons, nuclear know-how and nuclear material has brought us to a nuclear tipping point. We face a very real possibility that the deadliest weapons ever invented could fall into dangerous hands.
The steps we are taking now to address these threats are not adequate to the danger. With nuclear weapons more widely available, deterrence is decreasingly effective and increasingly hazardous.
(From: The Wall Street Journal) (More)
Fix the Proposal for Nuclear Cooperation with India, Letter to Nuclear Suppliers Group and IAEA
Dear Minister :
In the coming weeks the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors will likely be asked to consider a new ?India-specific? safeguards agreement that would cover a limited number of additional ?civilian? reactors. Shortly thereafter, the members of the 45-nation Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) will be asked to take a position on the Bush administration?s proposal to exempt India from longstanding NSG guidelines that require full-scope IAEA safeguards as a condition of supply.(More)
European mayors want withdrawal of US nukes from their territory
European mayors want withdrawal of US nukes from their territory(More)
and 1,937 Mayors demand global elimination of nuclear weapons by 2020
Brussels, December 6th 2007 - European Mayors on whose territory US nuclear
weapons are deployed demand, in a remarkable common position paper, THE
withdrawAL OF the remaining US nuclear weapons from their municipalites. The
Mayors from Peer (Kleine Brogel - Belgium), Aviano and Ghedi (Italy), Uden
(Volkel - The Netherlands), Incirlik (Turkey), and Buechel (Germany) receive
support for their appeal from the Executive Cities of the Mayors for Peace,
including the Mayors of Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Florence, Manchester, and
Lettre d'Abolition2000 Europe aux Maires français membres de Mayors for Peace : "Pouvez vous trouver rapidemment un collègue Maire ami pour devenir membre de Mayor for Peace ?"
Madame la Maire,
Vous êtes sensibilisée à la paix et aux problèmes posés par les armes nucléaires puisque votre ville est membre de Mayors for Peace (Maires pour la paix), réseau mondial dont le Maire d’Hiroshima est président .
Abolition2000-Europe travaille étroitement avec ce réseau, c’est pourquoi nous vous adressons ce courrier. Les liens entre ONG et institutions sont une des bases des avancées démocratiques. L’abolition des armes nucléaires (actuellement encore 20.000 bombes sont prêtes à partir !) est toujours un enjeu dramatique de notre survie. Et nos villes sont les cibles privilégiées. Notre objectif coïncide avec celui du projet « Vision 2020 » d’obtenir pour l’année 2020 un traité d’élimination des armes nucléaires.
Pièces jointes : 1- lettre de Mr Tadatoshi Akiba, Maire d’Hiroshima à transmettre aux collègues-Maires que vous solliciterez, 2- un formulaire d’inscription à Mayors for Peace, 3- la lettre des maires belges à leur gouvernement.
Norway’s commitment to mine action and human security
Speech by Jonas Gahr Støre (Norwegian Foreign Minister) at the Civil Society Conference at the 10th Anniversary of the Mine Ban Treaty, Towards Human Security, Oslo, Norwegian Red Cross, 17 September 2007.(More)
Conference report: "A Comprehensive Approach towards Nuclear Disarmament”
Thursday 19 April 2007
European Parliament, Brussels
Organised by Abolition 2000 Europe, ISIS Europe, Mayors for Peace, Olof Palme International Center and the Parliamentary Network for Nuclear Disarmament
On Thursday April 19th, members of the European Parliament from across the political spectrum joined with disarmament experts, political leaders and civil society representatives in a conference "A Comprehensive approach towards nuclear disarmament".
The conference explored the possibilities and opportunities for the European Union to become increasingly involved in promoting non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament. This conference was very timely in as it took place during the run-up to the next Non-Proliferation Treaty Preparatory Committee from April 30 to May 11 2007.
STOP TO THE NUCLEAR WEAPONS: THE WORLD SHOULD LISTEN TO PUGWASH’S WORDS ABOUT DISARMEMENT AND PEACE
Vice President of the European parliament
STOP TO THE NUCLEAR WEAPONS: THE WORLD SHOULD LISTEN TO PUGWASH’S WORDS ABOUT DISARMEMENT AND PEACE (More)
Scottish Parliament votes against Trident nuclear weapons
The following motion was approved by the Scottish Parliament:
"That the Parliament congratulates the majority of Scottish MPs for voting on 14 March 2007 to reject the replacement of Trident, recognises that decisions on matters of defence are matters within the responsibility of the UK Government and Parliament and calls on the UK Government not to go ahead at this time with the proposal in the White Paper, The Future of the United Kingdom's Nuclear Deterrent."
71 Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs) voted for this motion, 16 against and 39 abstained.(More)
European Trade Union Confederation calls for world free of wapons of mass destruction
The two major metalworkers trade unions in Italy (FIM-CISL and FIOM-CGIL), who are members of the Italian Disarmament Network, are pleased to inform nuclear abolitionists that the following amendment was presented by the Italian trade union confederation to the Seville Conference of ETUC. The amendment, which reads as follows, was adopted.
"The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) calls on the European Union to work to achieve a world free of weapons of mass destruction within the shortest possible time and, with the aim to convert war economies into peace economies, calls for major reductions in military expenditure which diverts resources from urgent development needs, and for new initiatives to regulate and control world arms production and trade."
Parliamentarians and a European Nuclear Weapon Free Zone: New Prospects and Possibilities
Over the years there have been a number of proposals to establish nuclear weapon free zones (NWFZs) in Europe. However, due to Cold War
politics none of these were successful. There are a number of recent developments that are making the prospect of a NWFZ in Europe both more pressing and more possible. (More)
INSPECTORS ANGER AS NUCLEAR CONVOY GOES THROUGH EDINBURGH
ITALIAN CONVOY AGAINST WAR, FOR DISARMING AND PEACE
Aim of the “CONVOY” is to awaken public opinion and gather subjects that think to expand the present territorial conflicts on decisive points of a consistent peace engagement(More)
PRAGUE DECLARATION - PEACE DOESN'T NEED NEW MISSILES
PRAGUE DECLARATION - International Conference against the Militarization of Europe
PEACE DOESN'T NEED NEW MISSILES -
We say no to the US missile defence system in Europe
Faced with new US military plans to begin official negotiations with the Czech and Polish governments on May 10th, the signatories of this paper declare:
We voice our protest against the plans of the Bush adminstration to install a "national missile defence system" for the US on the territory of the Czech Republic and Poland.
To sign the call, please send a mail to: email@example.com
Read the complete text of the call here.(More)
NPT impasse continues: meeting held hostage by Iran over agenda
I believe we should ditch our nuclear deterrent for the same reasons I once fought to save it
The nuclear deterrent changed my life. In the early 60s - having been rejected by a dozen safe Labour constituencies - I decided that London and parliament were not for me. I would remain in the north, administer my small part of the health service, and guide the housing department of Sheffield city council. Then Hugh Gaitskill promised to "fight and fight again to save the party we love". Suddenly, all I wanted was to be a foot soldier in the battle against the forces of unreason demanding unilateral nuclear disarmament. So I set off again on the long and winding road that led to the Sparkbrook division of Birmingham.
The Trident Dispatches: An Overview of the Debate
Henry A. Kissinger, président de la société de consultants Kissinger Associates, secrétaire d'Etat américain de 1973 à 1977 ;
Sam Nunn, ancien président de la commission du Sénat américain chargée des services armés ;
William J. Perry, secrétaire à la défense de 1994 à 1997 ;
George P. Schultz, membre de l'Institut Hoover, secrétaire d'Etat américain de 1982 à 1989.
L’arme nucléaire représente aujourd'hui une menace considérable, mais offre aussi une chance historique. Il revient à la puissance américaine de faire entrer le monde dans une nouvelle ère : celle d'un consensus solide en faveur de la fin du recours mondial à l'arme nucléaire qui permette d'éviter sa prolifération aux mains d'acteurs potentiellement dangereux, pour qu'au bout du compte le nucléaire cesse d'être une menace pour la planète.
Small Nuclear War Would Cause Global Environmental Catastrophe
A small-scale, regional nuclear war could disrupt the global climate for a decade or more, with environmental effects that could be devastating for everyone on Earth, researchers have concluded.
The scientists said about 40 countries possess enough plutonium or uranium to construct substantial nuclear arsenals. Setting off a Hiroshima-size weapon could cause as many direct fatalities as all of World War II.
CND Submits Alternative White Paper on Trident
Five MPs together with the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament are today handing in an Alternative White Paper to Downing Street. Gavin Strang MP, Katy Clark MP, Jeremy Corbyn MP, Linda Riordan MP, and Michael Meacher MP will join CND Chair Kate Hudson in presenting the Alternative White Paper to the Prime Minister’s residence.(More)
Tony Blair's legacy: Another 50 years of nuclear weapons?
Aldermaston Women's Peace Camp today condemned the government's White Paper for its commitment to retaining a UK nuclear weapons system, and for its failure to come clean about measures the government has already taken at AWE Aldermaston to build facilities to test, design and build a new generation of nuclear warheads. (More)
AWE Aldermaston: activists call for a stop to building work as government publishes White Paper
Block the Builders is calling for an immediate stop to all building work at AWE Aldermaston, until there has been a full public debate on today's White Paper on the future of the UK's nuclear weapons.
While Tony Blair was announcing the "options" for the development of a next generation of nuclear submarines, and promising a parliamentary vote in three months time, contractors were continuing their work on buildings at Aldermaston which are now generally acknowledged to make to the site "fit for the purpose" of building the next generation of nuclear weapons. (More)
Two Sides of the Same Coin: Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Disarmament
Frank-Walter Steinmeier and Jonas Gahr-Støre
published on Friday, November 10, 2006
Unofficial English version
The security situation in Europe has changed dramatically over the last 20 years. The threat of nuclear annihilation, which dominated strategic thinking throughout the Cold War, has abated - fortunately. Unfortunately, the momentum for arms control and disarmament seems to have followed suit, and we are faced with a different – more complex and less predictable – set of challenges to the international non-proliferation and disarmament regime (More)
Stop nuclear weapons - stop climate change: Anti-nuclear campaigners return to warhead factory ahead of government White Paper
Press release: 5/11/2006, Block the Builders
As 25,000 people took to the streets of London yesterday calling for action on climate
change, data from scientists, industry bodies and researchers, suggests that the cost of
replacing the Trident nuclear weapons system - "could almost guarantee emission
reductions from 150m tonnes of carbon a year today to the necessary level of around 60m
tonnes by 2030."
For the same price, Britain could either renew its nuclear arsenal or
tackle climate change
John Vidal, Tania Branigan and James Randerson
Saturday November 4, 2006
After the apocalyptic vision of global catastrophe presented in the
Stern report on climate change, by midweek there was broad political
agreement that countries need to start committing to dramatic cuts in
greenhouse gases. But no one has yet tried to estimate exactly how much
it will cost or where the money will come from to get emissions down by
the 60% minimum scientists say is needed by 2030.
Youth Demand: New Defense Outlines Should Make Germany Nuclear Weapons Free
CND CONDEMNS NORTH KOREAN NUCLEAR TEST; CALLS FOR GLOBAL BAN ON NUCLEAR WEAPONS
CND also noted that the failure of the nuclear weapons states to disarm, as required by the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, will continue to contribute to nuclear proliferation.
Global proliferation of nuclear weapons has increased dramatically as the five nuclear weapons states signed up to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty have failed to fulfil their obligation to disarm and engage in programmes designed to build new nuclear weapons. (More)
Mouvement de la Paix Press Release, 9/10/2006: Faced with provocation, let us remain cool-headed and relaunch disarmament!
threats several times uttered since it announced its withdrawal from the
Non-Proliferation Treaty in 2003.
This is very alarming!
The answer chosen by the DPRK face to the permanent threat the Bush's policy constitutes in its view is irresponsible. It is the worst possible for the
Korean people and peoples worldwide.
For Mother Earth condemns North Korean nuclear test, calls for global ban on nuclear weapons
For Mother Earth Press Release, 9/10/2006
With the detonation of a nuclear test this morning, North Korea has crossed a line which it should have never crossed. For Mother Earth, member of Friends of the Earth international, believes that the North Korean nuclear test is a provocative military activity, and calls for a global ban on the production, use, and testing of nuclear weapons. (More)
Greenpeace: North Korean nuclear test condemned
Greenpeace Press Release, 9/10/2006
Seoul, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of — Greenpeace has condemned the underground testing of a nuclear weapon by North Korea. South Korea’s intelligence agency detected a 3.58 magnitude seismic tremor confirming the nuclear test announced by North Korea’s Central News Agency (KCNA). By testing the weapon North Korea becomes the ninth country to have a nuclear arsenal.(More)
Securing our safety, ensuring our survival - why US NATO nuclear weapons in Europe must go
Download the Greenpeace report
Ten years on and still a long way to go! 10th anniversary of the end of 30 years French nuclear testing in the Pacific
Friday, January 27th 2006 marks the 10th anniversary of the end of 30 years French nuclear testing in the Pacific.
From: Peace and Disarmanent Desk, Pacific Concerns Resouce Centre (More)
International Peace Bureau welcomes Nobel Award to IAEA + El-Baradei; Urges campaigns for nuclear-free world
Mouvement de la Paix statement on Nobel Prize
Greenpeace reaction to Nobel Peace Prize award to Mohamed ElBaradei
Worse than irrelevant: Replacing Trident is against both our national interests and our international obligations (Robin Cook, The Guardian, 29/7/2005)
Originally published in The Guardian, 29/7/2005